Krasno (Jelovac) pack

Monitoring of the Jelovac pack, which was later renamed the Krasno pack, began in August 2003 when wolf research began in the Lika region. In November 2003, a young female W7-Jelica was captured in the area of Jelovac near Krasno, and she was fitted with a collar for satellite monitoring. When the collared wolf was released, intensive monitoring confirmed that she joined the pack four days later. It was established that the Jelovac pack in that period had been moving through a territory of 156 km². Following this, the wolf was monitored using classical telemetry methods, and an additional 14 positions were recorded within the pack movement range.


On 21 March 2004, the component of the collar for classic telemetric monitoring ceased to emit a signal, which disabled further monitoring of the wolf. In mid November 2004, Jelica was seen by hunters, and from 14 May 2004, activities to collar new individuals began.

2007 and 2008

In summer 2007, a female W17-Tara was captured and fitted with a GPS-UHF collar to monitor the Krasno pack. During winter 2006/2007, this pack had at least six wolves, and during winter 2007/2008, there were at least seven. The pack had a litter in 2008, which was confirmed through trial howling and in direct observation of five pups on 21 August 2008. In mid winter 2008/2009, the pack had at least eight wolves. During the 488 days of monitoring the wolf Tara and the Krasno pack, a total of 3542 locations were obtained, representing the first good data on the movement and territory size of wolves on Mt. Velebit. The territory of the Krasno pack was 736.4 km², though core areas that included 95%, 75% and 50% of locations were only 93.1 km², 19.9 km² and 9.3 km², respectively. The territory of the Krasno pack was twice that of the territory of wolves in Gorski Kotar. This indicates that wolf density on Mt. Velebit is only half of that in Gorski Kotar. For a more reliable conclusion on the wolf density on Mt. Velebit and in Lika, multiple packs should be monitored for several years.

2009 and 2010

Unfortunately, during spring 2009, Tara's collar ceased to operate after a two year period. In order to continue active monitoring of the Krasno pack, another young female was fitted with a VHF collar in the territory of the Krasno pack. This was W24-Ira, a five-month old pup, weighing 13.5 g. On 31 August 2009, she was fitted with a small VHF collar and her tracking was possible only using classic VHF triangulation. At the start of winter 2009/2010, at least eight wolves were in the Krasno pack, including Ira.

2011 and 2012

In June 2011, Ira's collar was found, having fallen off after only a year of monitoring. According to the data obtained through telemetric monitoring of the Krasno pack in the Mt. Velebit area, it was learned that the pack territory in that area was twice that in comparison to Gorski Kotar, and that the wolf density was half that in Gorski Kotar. For example, the territory size of the pack in Gorski Kotar averages 350 km2, as compared to 736 km2 on Mt. Velebit. At the end of August and in early September 2012 in the Velebit area, the territory of the Krasno pack was monitoring for signs of wolf presence, and traps and photo-traps were set up. A number of photos were obtained showing a single wolf, while a total of 31 signs of presence were observed. Capture was not successful as forest works (sanitary clearing) had already begun at that time, and one of the capture traps was destroyed in the process.


During 2013, monitoring continued using photo-traps and the collection of other signs of presence. Considering that this pack inhabits a protected area, the ranger service of the Public Institute of Velebit Nature Park also monitors the population year-round, in cooperation with scientists. The photographs indicate individual movements and the movement of 2 individuals, and in early February 2013, four signs of presence were observed. In addition to other signs (droppings, tracks, remains of prey, visual confirmation and howling sounds) that had been more frequent in previous years, a negative trend has been confirmed for the past two years. All the collected data indicate that the Krasno pack has become significantly smaller, and can be assessed at a maximum of 4 to 5 individuals in that pack.